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PLoS Biol. 2013;11(3):e1001513. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001513. Epub 2013 Mar 19.

An abscisic acid-independent oxylipin pathway controls stomatal closure and immune defense in Arabidopsis.

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  • 1CEA Cadarache, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Institut de Biologie Environnementale et Biotechnologie, Service de Biologie Végétale et de Microbiologie Environnementale, Laboratoire d'Ecophysiologie Moléculaire des Plantes, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7265, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique/Aix-Marseille Université, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France. jean-luc.montillet@cea.fr

Abstract

Plant stomata function in innate immunity against bacterial invasion and abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to regulate this process. Using genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that (i) the Arabidopsis thaliana nine-specific-lipoxygenase encoding gene, LOX1, which is expressed in guard cells, is required to trigger stomatal closure in response to both bacteria and the pathogen-associated molecular pattern flagellin peptide flg22; (ii) LOX1 participates in stomatal defense; (iii) polyunsaturated fatty acids, the LOX substrates, trigger stomatal closure; (iv) the LOX products, fatty acid hydroperoxides, or reactive electrophile oxylipins induce stomatal closure; and (v) the flg22-mediated stomatal closure is conveyed by both LOX1 and the mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3 and MPK6 and involves salicylic acid whereas the ABA-induced process depends on the protein kinases OST1, MPK9, or MPK12. Finally, we show that the oxylipin and the ABA pathways converge at the level of the anion channel SLAC1 to regulate stomatal closure. Collectively, our results demonstrate that early biotic signaling in guard cells is an ABA-independent process revealing a novel function of LOX1-dependent stomatal pathway in plant immunity.

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PMID:
23526882
PMCID:
PMC3602010
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pbio.1001513
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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