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Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 Jul;57(7):1182-97. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201200678. Epub 2013 Mar 25.

Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from blueberry-blackberry fermented beverages inhibit markers of inflammation in macrophages and carbohydrate-utilizing enzymes in vitro.

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Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.



Berries are an excellent source of dietary flavonoids which have several health benefits.


We evaluated well-characterized anthocyanins (ANCs) and proanthocyanidins (PACs) from fermented blueberry-blackberry beverages. Wines were produced from highbush blueberries and blackberries grown in Illinois and blended to create ratios ranging from 100% blueberry to 100% blackberry. Total ANCs of the wine were strongly correlated to total phenolics (r = 0.99, p < 0.05) and to antioxidant capacity (r = 0.77, p < 0.05). ANC- and PAC-enriched fractions were purified from each wine blend and a phenolic profile was generated. ANCs increased with more blackberries from 1114 to 1550 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) equivalents/L. Hydrolysable tannins were identified in the PAC-enriched fraction. Both ANC- and PAC-enriched fractions inhibited starch-degrading enzyme α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV activity. Computational docking demonstrated that delphinidin-3-arabinoside effectively inactivated dipeptidyl peptidase-IV by binding with the lowest interaction energy (-3228 kcal/mol). ANC and PAC (100 μM C3G and epicatechin equivalents, respectively) from blueberry-blackberry blends reduced LPS-induced inflammatory response in mouse macrophages via the nuclear factor kappa B-mediated pathway.


ANC- and PAC- (including hydrolysable tannins in blackberry) enriched fractions from blueberry and blackberry fermented beverages are beneficial sources of antioxidants, inhibitors of carbohydrate-utilizing enzymes, and potential inhibitors of inflammation.


Anthocyanin; Berry; Diabetes; Hydrolysable tannins; Inflammation; Proanthocyanidin

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