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Oncoimmunology. 2013 Feb 1;2(2):e22945.

Links between Toll-like receptor 4 and breast cancer.

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  • 1Department of Academic Surgery; University College Cork (UCC); Cork University Hospital; Cork, Ireland.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have generated an extraordinary amount of interest in cancer research since the last decade. TLRs are a family of pattern recognition receptors that is involved in the host defense against microbial infections. It is well known that the activation of TLRs leads to the production of biological factors that drive inflammatory responses and activate the adaptive immune system. More recently, TLR-mediated signaling pathways have been shown to support tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we describe recently emerged links between TLR4 and breast cancer oncogenesis, and future perspectives for the targeting of TLR4 in breast cancer therapy.


TLR4; breast cancer; signal transduction pathways; tumor progression and metastasis

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