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PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59131. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059131. Epub 2013 Mar 8.

Integrated analysis of COX-2 and iNOS derived inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW macrophages pre-exposed to Echium plantagineum L. bee pollen extract.

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Rede de Química e Tecnologia (REQUIMTE)/Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.


Oxidative stress and inflammation play important roles in disease development. This study intended to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of Echium plantagineum L. bee pollen to support its claimed health beneficial effects. The hydromethanol extract efficiently scavenged nitric oxide ((•)NO) although against superoxide (O2(•-)) it behaved as antioxidant at lower concentrations and as pro-oxidant at higher concentrations. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated in LPS-stimulated macrophages. The levels of (•)NO and L-citrulline decreased for all extract concentrations tested, while the levels of prostaglandins, their metabolites and isoprostanes, evaluated by UPLC-MS, decreased with low extract concentrations. So, E. plantagineum bee pollen extract can exert anti-inflammatory activity by reducing (•)NO and prostaglandins. The extract is able to scavenge the reactive species (•)NO and O2(•-) and reduce markers of oxidative stress in cells at low concentrations.

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