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Mov Disord. 2013 May;28(5):576-81. doi: 10.1002/mds.25442. Epub 2013 Mar 20.

Yips and other movement disorders in golfers.

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Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.


Golf is a sport that requires perfect motor coordination and a balance between mobility and stability. Golfer's "yips," an intermittent motor disturbance manifested as transient tremor, jerk, or spasm that primarily occurs when the player is trying to chip or make a putt, is a movement disorder frequently encountered in both amateur and professional golfers. In addition, other movement disorders, such as tremors and dystonia, also can interfere with playing golf. Although the pathophysiology of the yips remains poorly understood, recent studies suggest that it may be a form of a task-specific, focal dystonia involving the hand and arm. Because task-specific dystonias and tremors are best treated by botulinum toxin injections, this also may be an effective therapy for the yips. The aim of this article is to systematically review the literature and our own experience with the yips and other movement disorders in golfers.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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