Send to

Choose Destination
Glycobiology. 2013 Jul;23(7):865-76. doi: 10.1093/glycob/cwt024. Epub 2013 Mar 20.

Glycosaminoglycans in the blood of hereditary multiple exostoses patients: Half reduction of heparan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate ratio and the possible diagnostic application.

Author information

Research Complex for the Medicine Frontiers.


Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder with wide variation in clinical phenotype and is caused by heterogeneous germline mutations in two of the Ext genes, EXT-1 and EXT-2, which encode ubiquitously expressed glycosyltransferases involved in the polymerization of heparan sulfate (HS) chains. To examine whether the Ext mutation could affect HS structures and amounts in HME patients being heterozygous for the Ext genes, we collected blood from patients and healthy individuals, separated it into plasma and cellular fractions and then isolated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from those fractions. A newly established method consisting of a combination of selective ethanol precipitation of GAGs, digestion of GAGs recovered on the filter-cup by direct addition of heparitinase or chondroitinase reaction solution and subsequent high-performance liquid chromatography of the unsaturated disaccharide products enabled the analysis using the least amount of blood (200 ┬ÁL). We found that HS structures of HME patients were almost similar to those of controls in both plasma and cellular fractions. However, interestingly, although both the amounts of HS and chondroitin sulfate (CS) varied depending on the different individuals, the amounts of HS in both the plasma and cellular fractions of HME patient samples were decreased and the ratios of HS to CS (HS/CS) of HME patient samples were almost half those of healthy individuals. The results suggest that HME patients' blood exhibited reduced HS amounts and HS/CS ratios, which could be used as a diagnostic biomarker for HME.


chondroitin sulfate; chondroitinase; heparan sulfate; heparinase; hereditary multiple exostoses

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center