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Plant Cell. 2013 Mar;25(3):1016-28. doi: 10.1105/tpc.113.110106. Epub 2013 Mar 19.

14-3-3 regulates 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase protein turnover in Arabidopsis.

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Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3280, USA.


14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved phospho-specific binding proteins involved in diverse physiological processes. Plants have large 14-3-3 gene families, and many binding partners have been identified, though relatively few functions have been defined. Here, we demonstrate that 14-3-3 proteins interact with multiple 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) isoforms in Arabidopsis thaliana. ACS catalyzes the generally rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the phytohormone ethylene. This interaction increases the stability of the ACS proteins. 14-3-3s also interact with the ETHYLENE-OVERPRODUCER1 (ETO1)/ETO1-LIKE (EOLs), a group of three functionally redundant proteins that are components of a CULLIN-3 E3 ubiquitin ligase that target a subset of the ACS proteins for rapid degradation by the 26S proteasome. In contrast with ACS, the interaction with 14-3-3 destabilizes the ETO1/EOLs. The level of the ETO1/EOLs in vivo plays a role in mediating ACS protein turnover, with increased levels leading to a decrease in ACS protein levels. These studies demonstrate that regulation of ethylene biosynthesis occurs by a mechanism in which 14-3-3 proteins act through a direct interaction and stabilization of ACS and through decreasing the abundance of the ubiquitin ligases that target a subset of ACS proteins for degradation.

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