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Int J Hepatol. 2013;2013:604860. doi: 10.1155/2013/604860. Epub 2013 Feb 24.

Changing epidemiology of hepatocellular adenoma in the United States: review of the literature.

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Division of Liver Diseases, The Mount Sinai Medical Center, One Gustave Levy Place, P.O. Box 1104, New York, NY 10029-6574, USA ; Recanati/Miller Transplant Institute, The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.


Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a benign neoplasm arising from hepatocytes. There is evidence that the inflammatory subtype may be associated with obesity and alcohol use and that men with metabolic syndrome may be at risk for malignant transformation of HCA. We sought to explore the combined experience of US centers as reported in the literature to document the epidemiologic shift in risk factors for HCA formation in the United States, namely, a shift from oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) to an emerging role of obesity as a contributing factor. Methods. Publications reporting HCA in the United States were identified through a PubMed search and a review of the literature. We excluded publications prior to 1970, single case reports, and publications for which there was no data available regarding patient characteristics including OCP use and the number of adenomas. Conclusion. Whereas earlier reports of HCA in the United States described cases exclusively in women exposed to OCPs, there is a trend towards an increase in HCAs reported in men, HCAs in the absence of OCP use, and increased reporting of multiple HCAs. This may be a result of newer OCP formulations and increasing prevalence of obesity.

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