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Indian J Med Microbiol. 2013 Jan-Mar;31(1):40-6. doi: 10.4103/0255-0857.108720.

Changing patterns and trends of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis at referral centre in Northern India: a 4-year experience.

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Department of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.



India has a high burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), although there is little data on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Although MDR-TB has existed for long time in India, very few diagnostic laboratories are well-equipped to test drug sensitivity. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of MDR-TB, first-line drug resistance patterns and its changing trends in northern India in the 4 years.


This was a prospective study from July 2007 to December 2010. Microscopy, culture by Bactec460 and p-nitro-α-acetylamino-β-hydroxypropiophenone (NAP) test was performed to isolate and identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) complex (MTBC). Drug sensitivity testing (DST) was performed by 1% proportional method (Bactec460) for four drugs: Rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and streptomycin. Various clinical and demographical profiles were evaluated to analyse risk factors for development of drug resistance.


We found the overall prevalence rate of MDR-TB to be 38.8%, increasing from 36.4% in 2007 to 40.8% in 2010. we found that the prevalence of MDR-TB in new and previously treated cases was 29.1% and 43.3% ( P < 0.05; CI 95%). The increasing trend of MDR-TB was more likely in pulmonary TB when compared with extra-pulmonary TB ( P < 0.05; CI 95%).


we found a high prevalence (38.8%) of MDR-TB both in new cases (29.1%) and previously treated cases (43.3%).This study strongly highlights the need to make strategies for testing, surveillance, monitoring and management of such drug-resistant cases.

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