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Trop Parasitol. 2011 Jan;1(1):15-9. doi: 10.4103/2229-5070.72112.

Enteric spore-forming opportunistic parasites in HIV / AIDS.

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Centre for AIDS and Related Diseases, National Center for Disease Control, New Delhi, India.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection causes progressive damage to both limbs of the immune system, which results in a plethora of opportunistic infections. Among the various opportunistic infections, gastrointestinal infections are very common in HIV / Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Opportunistic spore-forming protozoal parasites, namely, Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Microsporidia, play a major role in causing chronic diarrhea, accompanied with weight loss, in patients with HIV / AIDS. The purpose of this review is to discuss the salient microbiological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of important enteric spore-forming opportunistic parasites in HIV / AIDS.


Cryptosporidium parvum; Cyclospora cayetanensis; HIV / AIDS; Isospora belli; Microsporidia; Spore-forming protozoa

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