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Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2013 Dec;15(6):780-90. doi: 10.1111/cid.12056. Epub 2013 Mar 18.

Long-term outcomes of dental implants with a titanium plasma-sprayed surface: a 20-year prospective case series study in partially edentulous patients.

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Department of Oral Surgery and Stomatology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.



Long-term studies of ≥10 years are important milestones to get a better understanding of potential factors causing implant failures or complications.


The present study investigated the long-term outcomes of titanium dental implants with a rough, microporous surface (titanium plasma sprayed [TPS]) and the associated biologic and technical complications in partially edentulous patients with fixed dental prostheses over a 20-year follow-up period.


Sixty-seven patients, who received 95 implants in the 1980s, were examined with well-established clinical and radiographic parameters. Based on these findings, each implant was classified as either successful, surviving, or failed.


Ten implants in nine patients were lost during the observation period, resulting in an implant survival rate of 89.5%. Radiographically, 92% of the implants exhibited crestal bone loss below 1 mm between the 1- and 20-year follow-up examinations. Only 8% yielded peri-implant bone loss of >1 mm and none exhibited severe bone loss of more than 1.8 mm. During the observation period, 19 implants (20%) experienced a biologic complication with suppuration. Of these 19 implants, 13 implants (13.7%) had been treated and were successfully maintained over the 20-year follow-up period. Therefore, the 20-year implant success rate was 75.8 or 89.5% depending on the different success criteria. Technical complications were observed in 32%.


The present study is the first to report satisfactory success rates after 20 years of function of dental implants with a TPS surface in partially edentulous patients.


biological complications; crestal bone loss; dental implant; implant success rate; implant survival rate; peri-implant bone loss; prospective follow-up study; technical complications; titanium plasma sprayed

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