Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Sep Sci. 2013 Apr;36(8):1446-54. doi: 10.1002/jssc.201201105. Epub 2013 Mar 15.

Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs from human plasma and urine using response surface experimental designs.

Author information

Institute of Legal Medicine, Forensic Toxicology Service, Faculty of Medicine, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.


The performance of microwave-assisted extraction and HPLC with photodiode array detection method for determination of six analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs from plasma and urine, is described, optimized, and validated. Several parameters affecting the extraction technique were optimized using experimental designs. A four-factor (temperature, phosphate buffer pH 4.0 volume, extraction solvent volume, and time) hybrid experimental design was used for extraction optimization in plasma, and three-factor (temperature, extraction solvent volume, and time) Doehlert design was chosen to extraction optimization in urine. The use of desirability functions revealed the optimal extraction conditions as follows: 67°C, 4 mL phosphate buffer pH 4.0, 12 mL of ethyl acetate and 9 min, for plasma and the same volume of buffer and ethyl acetate, 115°C and 4 min for urine. Limits of detection ranged from 4 to 45 ng/mL in plasma and from 8 to 85 ng/mL in urine. The reproducibility evaluated at two concentration levels was less than 6.5% for both specimens. The recoveries were from 89 to 99% for plasma and from 83 to 99% for urine. The proposed method was successfully applied in plasma and urine samples obtained from analgesic users.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley
    Loading ...
    Support Center