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J Plant Physiol. 2013 May 15;170(8):748-57. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2012.12.020. Epub 2013 Mar 15.

Proteomic analysis of grape berry skin responding to sunlight exclusion.

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Beijing Key Laboratory of Grape Science and Enology, and Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China.


The most obvious effect of sunlight exclusion from grape clusters is the inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the berry skin so that no color develops. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry was used to characterize the proteins isolated from berry skins that developed under sunlight exclusion versus those from sunlight-exposed berries. Among more than 1500 spots resolved in stained gels, the accumulation patterns of 96 spots differed significantly between sunlight-excluded berry skin and that of sunlight-exposed control berries. Seventy-two proteins, including 35 down-regulated and 37 up-regulated proteins, were identified and categorized. Proteins involved in photosynthesis and secondary metabolism, especially UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), the key step for anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berry skin, were accumulated less in the absence of sunlight. Several isoforms of heat shock proteins were also down-regulated. The proteins that were over-accumulated in sunlight-excluded berry skin were more often related to energy production, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic-acid cycle, protein synthesis and biogenesis of cellular components. Their putative role is discussed in terms of their relevance to sunlight exclusion processes.

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