Send to

Choose Destination
Clin Immunol. 2013 Dec;149(3):324-31. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2013.02.005. Epub 2013 Feb 22.

IL-2 therapy in type 1 diabetes: "Trials" and tribulations.

Author information

Translational Immunology, Benaroya Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA.


IL-2 facilitates immunity or tolerance depending on its availability. In model systems, it is well established that low dose IL-2 promotes selective expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg), an IL-2 responsive cell type known to control autoimmunity. Moreover, many autoimmune diseases are marked by defects in Treg and/or IL-2/IL-2 receptor signaling. Thus, patients with immune-mediated diseases were treated with IL-2 with the goal of increasing Treg and controlling autoimmunity. In graft versus host disease, HCV-induced vasculitis and type 1 diabetes (T1D), Treg numbers increased with IL-2 therapy. Yet there was no relationship between Treg number and clinical outcome. In fact, in T1D subjects treated with rapamycin and IL-2 therapy there was no measureable clinical benefit. In this review, we compare results from IL-2 treatment of patients with immune-mediated diseases, discuss possible mechanisms of IL-2 treatment and suggest future directions for use of IL-2 therapy in T1D.


Clinical trials;; GVHD; GVHD;; HCV-induced vasculitis; IL-2 receptor; IL-2;; IL2R; MMTT; Regulatory T cells; Regulatory T cells;; T1D; Teff; Treg; Type 1 diabetes;; effector T cells; graft versus host diseases; mixed meal tolerance test; type 1 diabetes

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center