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J Dairy Sci. 2013 May;96(5):3211-21. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-6211. Epub 2013 Mar 15.

Incremental effect of a calcium salt of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids supplement on milk fatty acid composition in cows fed maize silage-based diets.

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  • 1Division of Food Production and Quality, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AR, United Kingdom. k.e.kliem@reading.ac.uk

Abstract

In most Western countries, saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake exceeds recommended levels, which is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). As milk and dairy products are major contributors to SFA intake in many countries, recent research has focused on sustainable methods of producing milk with a lower saturated fat concentration by altering dairy cow diets. Human intervention studies have shown that CVD risk can be reduced by consuming dairy products with reduced SFA and increased cis-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations. This milk fatty acid profile can be achieved by supplementing dairy cow diets with cis-MUFA-rich unsaturated oils. However, rumen exposure of unsaturated oils also leads to enhanced milk trans fatty acid (TFA) concentrations. Because of concerns about the effects of TFA consumption on CVD, feeding strategies that increase MUFA concentrations in milk without concomitant increases in TFA concentration are preferred by milk processors. In an attempt to limit TFA production and increase the replacement of SFA by cis-MUFA, a preparation of rumen-protected unsaturated oils was developed using saponification with calcium salts. Four multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in mid-late lactation were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to investigate the effect of incremental dietary inclusion of a calcium salt of cis-MUFA product (Ca-MUFA; 20, 40, and 60 g/kg of dry matter of a maize silage-based diet), on milk production, composition, and fatty acid concentration. Increasing Ca-MUFA inclusion reduced dry matter intake linearly, but no change was observed in estimated ME intake. No change in milk yield was noted, but milk fat and protein concentrations were linearly reduced. Supplementation with Ca-MUFA resulted in a linear reduction in total SFA (from 71 to 52 g/100 g of fatty acids for control and 60 g/kg of dry matter diets, respectively). In addition, concentrations of both cis- and trans-MUFA were increased with Ca-MUFA inclusion, and increases in other biohydrogenation intermediates in milk fat were also observed. The Ca-MUFA supplement was very effective at reducing milk SFA concentration and increasing cis-MUFA concentrations without incurring any negative effects on milk and milk component yields. However, reduced milk fat and protein concentrations, together with increases in milk TFA concentrations, suggest partial dissociation of the calcium salts in the rumen.

PMID:
23498010
DOI:
10.3168/jds.2012-6211
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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