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BMC Public Health. 2013 Mar 15;13:227. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-227.

Culturally sensitive care for elderly immigrants through ethnic community health workers: design and development of a community based intervention programme in the Netherlands.

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Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Mailbox 85500, Utrecht, GA 3508, The Netherlands.



In Western countries, health and social welfare facilities are not easily accessible for elderly immigrants and their needs are suboptimally addressed. A transition is needed towards culturally sensitive services to overcome barriers to make cure and care accessible for elderly immigrants. We developed an intervention programme in which ethnic community health workers act as liaisons between immigrant elderly and local health care and social welfare services. In this study we evaluate the effectiveness and the implementation of this intervention programme.


In a quasi experimental design, the effectiveness of introduction of community health workers, health needs assessment, and follow-up intervention programme will be evaluated in three (semi) urban residential areas in the Netherlands and compared with a control group. Community health workers are selected from local ethnic communities and trained for the intervention. Data on health perception, quality of life, and care consumption are collected at baseline and after the intervention programme. Elderly's informal care givers are included to examine caregiver burden. The primary outcome is use of health care and social welfare facilities by the elderly. Secondary outcomes are quality of life and functional impairments. The target number of participants is 194 immigrant elderly: 97 for the intervention group and 97 for the control group. Implementation of the intervention programme will be examined with focus groups and data registration of community health worker activities.


This study can contribute to the improvement of care for elderly immigrants by developing culturally sensitive care whereby they actively participate. To enable a successful transition, proper identification and recruitment of community health workers is required. Taking this into account, the study aims to provide evidence for an approach to improve the care and access to care for elderly immigrants. Once proven effective, the community health worker function can be further integrated into the existing local health care and welfare system.




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