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Depress Anxiety. 2013 Oct;30(10):1013-20. doi: 10.1002/da.22075. Epub 2013 Mar 14.

Lethal means restriction for suicide prevention: beliefs and behaviors of emergency department providers.

Author information

1
Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Colorado.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We sought to examine the beliefs and behaviors of emergency department (ED) providers related to preventing suicide by reducing suicidal patients' access to lethal methods (means restriction) and identify characteristics associated with asking patients about firearm access.

METHODS:

Physicians and nurses at eight EDs completed a confidential, voluntary survey.

RESULTS:

The response rate was 79% (n = 631); 57% of respondents were females and 49% were nurses. Less than half believed, "most" or "all" suicides are preventable. More nurses (67%) than physicians (44%) thought "most" or "all" firearm suicide decedents would have died by another method had a firearm been unavailable (P < .001). The proportion of providers who reported they "almost always" ask suicidal patients about firearm access varied across five patient scenarios: suicidal with firearm suicide plan (64%), suicidal with no suicide plan (22%), suicidal with nonfirearm plan (21%), suicidal in past month but not today (16%), and overdosed but no longer suicidal (9%). In multivariable logistic regression, physicians were more likely than nurses to "almost always" or "often" ask about a firearm across all five scenarios, as were older providers and those who believed their own provider type was responsible for assessing firearm access.

CONCLUSIONS:

Many ED providers are skeptical about the preventability of suicide and the effectiveness of means restriction, and most do not assess suicidal patients' firearm access except when a patient has a firearm suicide plan. These findings suggest the need for targeted staff education concerning means restriction for suicide prevention.

KEYWORDS:

attitudes; emergency psychiatry; firearm; hospital care; screening

PMID:
23495002
PMCID:
PMC4347862
DOI:
10.1002/da.22075
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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