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Hum Reprod. 2013 May;28(5):1155-60. doi: 10.1093/humrep/det046. Epub 2013 Mar 14.

Birth of 16 healthy children after ICSI in cases of nonmosaic Klinefelter syndrome.

Author information

1
Center for Reproductive Medicine, European Hospital, Rome, Italy. ergreco1@virgilio.it

Abstract

STUDY QUESTION:

Does the health status of infants fathered by nonmosaic Klinefelter syndrome (KS) patients whose partners underwent ICSI with sperm obtained from testicular dissection reveal any genetic risk for the offspring?.

SUMMARY ANSWER:

KS patients undergoing testicular sperm extraction (TESE) are capable of conceiving healthy children.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY:

Paternity has been successfully achieved in nonmosaic KS patients (47,XXY karyotype) by ICSI using either ejaculated or testicular spermatozoa. A crucial concern is the potential transmission of genetic abnormalities to the offspring. Some studies reported that 47,XXY spermatogonia are capable of completing spermatogenesis leading to the production of mature spermatozoa with increased aneuploidies. Other authors showed that where focal spermatogenesis is present in nonmosaic KS males, it originates from euploid germ cells and, therefore, produces normal mature gametes. In support of this finding, at present, the great majority of children born from nonmosaic KS patients are chromosomally normal.

STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION:

From April 2004 to June 2010, 38 azoospermic patients with nonmosaic KS were examined for the presence of testicular spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were retrieved from 15 patients and 26 ICSI cycles were done (16 with cryopreserved sperm). There were 15 pregnancies leading to the birth of 16 babies who were karyotyped at amniocentesis and after birth.

PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS:

Participants were recruited from couples attending the European Hospital, Rome, and Clinica MAR&Gen, Granada, for infertility treatment. Both the European Hospital and Clinica MAR&Gen are private clinics. Testicular tissue was extracted with TESE or micro-TESE. After retrieval, fresh sperm was used for ICSI or it was cryopreserved for future use.

MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE:

Spermatozoa were retrieved from 15 patients (14 TESE and 1 micro-TESE) out of 38 (39.5%). A total of 26 ICSI cycles were performed: 10 with fresh and 16 with cryopreserved-thawed sperm. Mean ages (y) of patients with positive and negative sperm retrieval were, respectively, 34.8 ± 1.72 and 35.6 ± 4.08 (NS, nonsignificant). Comparing ICSI cycles performed with fresh sperm (n = 10) to those performed with frozen-thawed sperm (n = 16): Fertilization rates per injected oocyte were 53.0% (44 of 83) and 47.8% (32 of 67), respectively (NS). The cleavage rate per injected oocyte was 90.6% (29 of 32) versus 68.2% (30 of 44); P = 0.026. Clinical outcomes were not significantly different between the fresh and the frozen-thawed sperm group: clinical pregnancy rates were 7 of 10 (70.0%) and 8 of 16 (50.0%); implanted embryos (per transferred embryo) were 8 of 23 (34.8%) and 8 of 29 (27.6%); delivery rates were 6 of 10 (60.0%) and 5 of 16 (31.3%). Sixteen babies were born, all of them are healthy with a normal karyotype, eight from the fresh sperm group and eight from the frozen-thawed sperm group.

LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTIONS:

The small numbers available for study mean that only common problems can be excluded.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS:

This study provides further reassurance that KS men can father healthy children and that pre-implantation genetic diagnosis on embryos conceived with their sperm is not strongly indicated. However, until conclusive information is available, such couples should be offered extensive genetic counseling.

STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S):

No external funding was obtained for the present study. None of the authors has any conflict of interest to declare.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:

Not applicable.

PMID:
23493114
DOI:
10.1093/humrep/det046
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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