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Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Jul;25(7):755-63. doi: 10.1097/MEG.0b013e32835fb9a9.

Endovascular management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

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Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.


Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) remains a frequent presentation in the emergency department. There are several causes of UGIB, which can be generally classified into variceal and nonvariceal bleeding. Although most cases of nonvariceal UGIB spontaneously resolve or respond to medical management and/or endoscopic treatment, transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) remains an important available tool in the emergency evaluation and management of nonvariceal UGIB. In this article, we will discuss the current strategies for rendering a specific diagnosis of nonvariceal UGIB, and we will focus on the various TAE techniques for its management. We will also provide an algorithm for the diagnostic work-up of these patients. The majority of patients with nonvariceal UGIB that is refractory to endoscopic treatment is successfully treated with minimally invasive TAE and can avoid undergoing surgery.

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