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J Hum Hypertens. 2013 Sep;27(9):535-8. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2013.13. Epub 2013 Mar 14.

Aldosterone levels and inflammatory stimulation in essential hypertensive patients.

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Hypertensive Unit, 1st Cardiology Clinic, Athens University, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, Greece.


Recent studies indicate that the pro-inflammatory action of aldosterone (ALDO) or the activation of mineralocorticoid receptors contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the grade of the inflammatory activation, in relation to ALDO levels, in a large cohort of essential hypertensive patients. The study included 3770 consecutive essential hypertensive patients who attended our outpatient clinics. Patients were evaluated with medical history, repeated office blood pressure and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), physical examination and full laboratory assessment including ALDO in 24-h urine collection, plasma renin activity (PRA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), total fibrinogen, serum homocysteine (Hcy), serum amyloid A (SAA) and white blood cells (WBC) measurements in morning blood samples. Patients were divided according to PRA (high PRA >1 ng ml(-1) h(-1), low PRA <1 ng ml(-1) h(-1)) and ALDO levels (high ALDO >12 but <24 μg per 24 h, low ALDO <12 μg per 24 h) in four groups. The hsCRP (P<0.022) and SAA (P<0.001) levels increased in parallel with the ALDO metabolism. Similar differences were observed for Hcy (P<0.001), fibrinogen (P=0.001) and WBC (P<0.02). High ALDO levels within normal range are related to the presence of subclinical inflammation in essential hypertension. These data indicate that ALDO and PRA influence the process of subclinical inflammation involved in the increased risk of CVD.

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