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PLoS Genet. 2013;9(2):e1003269. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003269. Epub 2013 Feb 14.

Expression of a novel P22 ORFan gene reveals the phage carrier state in Salmonella typhimurium.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Food Microbiology, Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems (M2S), Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Abstract

We discovered a novel interaction between phage P22 and its host Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 that is characterized by a phage mediated and targeted derepression of the host dgo operon. Upon further investigation, this interaction was found to be instigated by an ORFan gene (designated pid for phage P22 encoded instigator of dgo expression) located on a previously unannotated moron locus in the late region of the P22 genome, and encoding an 86 amino acid protein of 9.3 kDa. Surprisingly, the Pid/dgo interaction was not observed during strict lytic or lysogenic proliferation of P22, and expression of pid was instead found to arise in cells that upon infection stably maintained an unintegrated phage chromosome that segregated asymmetrically upon subsequent cell divisions. Interestingly, among the emerging siblings, the feature of pid expression remained tightly linked to the cell inheriting this phage carrier state and became quenched in the other. As such, this study is the first to reveal molecular and genetic markers authenticating pseudolysogenic development, thereby exposing a novel mechanism, timing, and populational distribution in the realm of phage-host interactions.

PMID:
23483857
PMCID:
PMC3573128
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pgen.1003269
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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