Send to

Choose Destination
Ann Maxillofac Surg. 2012 Jan;2(1):36-40. doi: 10.4103/2231-0746.95315.

Evaluation of facial nerve function following surgical approaches for maxillofacial trauma.

Author information

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Naval Institute of Dental Sciences, INHS Asvini Campus, Colaba, Mumbai, India.



The aim of this study was to report facial nerve injury following extraoral surgical approaches for the treatment of maxillofacial trauma, using the House-Brackmann facial nerve grading system (HBFNGS) as a means of classifying and measuring the degree and type of injury.


The sample comprised 100 consecutive cases of various maxillofacial trauma in which extraoral surgical approaches were used. Variety of surgical approaches such as coronal, preauricular, endaural, retromandibular, and submandibular approach and its modifications were used based on the anatomic location of the fracture and the accessibility required for its reduction and fixation. Facial nerve function of all patients was evaluated preoperatively and 24 hours after surgery. Patients who presented postoperative facial nerve injury were likewise examined using the HBFNGS at 24 hours, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months.


Of the 100 patients, temporofacial branch involvement was seen in 11 cases, whereas cervicofacial branch involvement was seen in 6 cases. Complete recovery of the temporofacial branches was seen in a period of 3-4 months; whereas cervicofacial branches recovered in 5-6 months postoperatively.


The frequency of facial nerve injury was related to various surgical approaches in maxillofacial trauma. Facial nerve impairment was found to be temporary in all cases, although the recovery of cervicofacial branches took a longer time. Moreover, there is a need to standardize the reporting of facial nerve recovery.


Facial nerve; House–Brackmann facial nerve grading system; maxillofacial trauma

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Medknow Publications and Media Pvt Ltd Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center