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Nutrients. 2013 Mar 12;5(3):771-87. doi: 10.3390/nu5030771.

The dietary intake of wheat and other cereal grains and their role in inflammation.

Author information

1
University of Girona, Plaça Sant Domènec, Girona, Spain. k.d.punder@nki.nl

Abstract

Wheat is one of the most consumed cereal grains worldwide and makes up a substantial part of the human diet. Although government-supported dietary guidelines in Europe and the U.S.A advise individuals to eat adequate amounts of (whole) grain products per day, cereal grains contain "anti-nutrients," such as wheat gluten and wheat lectin, that in humans can elicit dysfunction and disease. In this review we discuss evidence from in vitro, in vivo and human intervention studies that describe how the consumption of wheat, but also other cereal grains, can contribute to the manifestation of chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases by increasing intestinal permeability and initiating a pro-inflammatory immune response.

PMID:
23482055
PMCID:
PMC3705319
DOI:
10.3390/nu5030771
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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