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Opt Express. 2013 Feb 25;21(4):4250-62. doi: 10.1364/OE.21.004250.

Hybrid plasmonic-photonic modes in diffractive arrays of nanoparticles coupled to light-emitting optical waveguides.

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FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics AMOLF, c/o Philips Research Laboratories, High Tech Campus 4, 5656 AE, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.


We study the hybridized plasmonic-photonic modes supported by two-dimensional arrays of metallic nanoparticles coupled to light-emitting optical waveguides. Localized surface plasmon polaritons in the metallic nanoparticles can couple to guided modes in the underlying waveguide, forming quasi-guided hybrid modes, or to diffracted orders in the plane of the array, forming surface lattice resonances. We consider three kinds of samples: one sustains quasi-guided modes only, another sustains surface lattice resonances only, and a third sample sustains both modes. This third sample constitutes the first demonstration of simultaneous coupling of localized surface plasmons to guided modes and diffracted orders. The dispersive properties of the modes in the samples are investigated through light extinction and emission spectroscopy. We elucidate the conditions that lead to the coexistence of surface lattice resonances and quasi-guided hybrid modes, and assess their potential for enhancing the luminescence of emitters embedded in the coupled waveguide. We find the largest increase in emission intensity for the surface lattice resonances, reaching up to a factor of 20.

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