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Radiology. 2013 Aug;268(2):440-50. doi: 10.1148/radiol.13122149. Epub 2013 Mar 12.

Multiparametric prostate MR imaging with T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced sequences: are all pulse sequences necessary to detect locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy?

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Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10065, USA.



To compare diagnostic accuracy of T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with that of multiparametric (MP) MR imaging combining T2-weighted imaging with diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging, dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging, or both in the detection of locally recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) after radiation therapy (RT).


This retrospective HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board; informed consent was waived. Fifty-three men (median age, 70 years) suspected of having post-RT recurrence of PCa underwent MP MR imaging, including DW and DCE sequences, within 6 months after biopsy. Two readers independently evaluated the likelihood of PCa with a five-point scale for T2-weighted imaging alone, T2-weighted imaging with DW imaging, T2-weighted imaging with DCE imaging, and T2-weighted imaging with DW and DCE imaging, with at least a 4-week interval between evaluations. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Interreader agreement was assessed, and quantitative parameters (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC], volume transfer constant [K(trans)], and rate constant [k(ep)]) were assessed at sextant- and patient-based levels with generalized estimating equations and the Wilcoxon rank sum test, respectively.


At biopsy, recurrence was present in 35 (66%) of 53 patients. In detection of recurrent PCa, T2-weighted imaging with DW imaging yielded higher AUCs (reader 1, 0.79-0.86; reader 2, 0.75-0.81) than T2-weighted imaging alone (reader 1, 0.63-0.67; reader 2, 0.46-0.49 [P ≤ .014 for all]). DCE sequences did not contribute significant incremental value to T2-weighted imaging with DW imaging (reader 1, P > .99; reader 2, P = .35). Interreader agreement was higher for combinations of MP MR imaging than for T2-weighted imaging alone (κ = 0.34-0.63 vs κ = 0.17-0.20). Medians of quantitative parameters differed significantly (P < .0001 to P = .0233) between benign tissue and PCa (ADC, 1.64 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec vs 1.13 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec; K(trans), 0.16 min(-1) vs 0.33 min(-1); k(ep), 0.36 min(-1) vs 0.62 min(-1)).


MP MR imaging has greater accuracy in the detection of recurrent PCa after RT than T2-weighted imaging alone, with no additional benefit if DCE is added to T2-weighted imaging and DW imaging.

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