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J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2013 Mar;22(3):259-66. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2012.3765.

Association between adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels at eight to fourteen weeks gestation and maternal glucose tolerance: the Parity, Inflammation, and Diabetes Study.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.



Inflammation may influence gestational hyperglycemia, but to date, the data from observational studies is largely limited to results from the third trimester of pregnancy. Our objective was to evaluate first trimester adipocytokine levels. We sought to determine whether first trimester adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-alpha concentrations were independently associated and predictive of maternal glucose tolerance, as measured by the 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT), after adjustment for maternal lifestyle behaviors and body mass index (BMI).


Prospective study of pregnant women (n=211) enrolled in the Parity, Inflammation, and Diabetes Study. Nonfasting serum levels of adiponectin and TNF-r2 were measured at 8-14 weeks of pregnancy. GCT results were abstracted from electronic prenatal records. Multiple linear regression models were developed to determine the association of adiponectin and TNF-r2 levels with response to the GCT, adjusting for demographics, pregravid dietary intake and physical activity, first trimester BMI, and gestational weight gain.


At baseline, higher adiponectin concentrations were inversely and statistically significantly associated with maternal response to the GCT [regression coefficient (β) -0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.29, -0.06). Adjustment for lifestyle factors did not alter the association of adiponectin with the GCT (β -0.74; 95% CI: -1.43, -0.05). After adjustment for first trimester BMI, the association of adiponectin was attenuated and no longer significant (β -0.46; 95% CI: -1.15, 0.24). TNF-r2 levels were not associated with the GCT (β -0.003; 95% CI: -0.011, 0.005).


First trimester adiponectin levels are not predictive of the 1-hour GCT response, but may be a marker for the effect of maternal BMI on glucose response to the GCT.

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