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Psychiatr Pol. 2012 Nov-Dec;46(6):933-49.

[Dysfunctional meta-cognitive beliefs and anxiety, depression and self-esteem among healthy subjects with hallucinatory-like experiences].

[Article in Polish]

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II Klinika Psychiatryczna WUM, Warszawa.



This study focuses on the relationship between dysfunctional meta-cognitive beliefs, depression, anxiety and self-esteem and hallucinatory-like experiences among healthy subjects.


198 participants (149 women), mostly recruited from universities, took part in the study. Hallucinatory-like experiences were assessed with the Polish version of the Revised Hallucinations Scale (RHS). Based on two sub-scales of RHS that measure visual and auditory hallucinatory-like experiences, two groups were divided: 1--participants with no auditory and visual hallucinatory-like experiences (n = 35) and 2--participants with high frequent hallucinatory-like experiences (n = 40). Meta-cognitive beliefs were assessed with the Metacognitions Questionnaire. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (R-SES) were used for emotional processes assessment. Further correlations between meta-cognitive beliefs, hallucinatory-like experiences and emotional processes were calculated.


Persons with frequent hallucinatory-like experiences tend to exhibit higher dysfunctional meta-cognitive beliefs in comparison to those who had no psychotic-like experiences. Moreover, those who had more frequent hallucinatory-like experiences revealed subclinical depression, were more anxious and exhibit lower level of self-esteem. Besides a total score in the RHS scale, dissociative experiences and auditory and visual perceptual alternations were found to be related to more dysfunctional meta-cognitive beliefs.


Hallucinatory-like experiences among healthy subjects are related to dysfunctional meta-cognitive beliefs. In addition, hallucination-like experiences were found to be linked to emotional dysfunctions, which implies that psychotic-like experiences observed in healthy persons may be of clinical interest.

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