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J Urol. 2013 Oct;190(4 Suppl):1484-9. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2013.02.3199. Epub 2013 Mar 7.

The effect of dietary sodium and fructose intake on urine and serum parameters of stone formation in a pediatric mouse model: a pilot study.

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Departments of Surgery (Division of Urology) and Pathology, Duke University and Section of Urology, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:



Dietary factors have a role in stone disease in adults but little is known about the relationship in children. We tested whether diet could alter urine and serum parameters in a pediatric mouse model.


We randomized 30 female BALB/c mice at age 3 weeks to mouse chow, a complex carbohydrate Western diet or a high fructose, high sodium Western diet. Body weight was measured twice weekly. Urine was periodically collected and mice were sacrificed on day 30. Samples were pooled to analyze serum and urine electrolyte factors.


There was no significant difference in body weights among the groups at any time or in kidney weight at sacrifice (each p >0.15). There was no observable increase in urine stone forming analytes across the arms except uric acid, which tended to be higher in the Western diet and high fructose, high sodium Western diet groups. There was a substantial decrease in urinary stone inhibitors (magnesium and citrate), a decrease in urinary potassium and an increase in serum calcium in the 2 Western diet groups.


This pilot study suggests that consuming a Western diet, especially one composed of high fructose and sodium, may alter parameters that predispose to stone formation in children by decreasing stone inhibitors. Results require validation in larger studies and ultimately in humans.


HFHS; WD; Western diet; citric acid; fructose; high fructose, high sodium WD; kidney; kidney calculi; sodium

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