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Br J Psychiatry. 2013 Apr;202(4):294-300. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.111.107003. Epub 2013 Mar 7.

Gender differences in mental health expectancies in early- and midlife in six European countries.

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Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, UK.



Health expectancies, taking into account both quality and quantity of life, have generally been based on disability and physical functioning.


To compare mental health expectancies at age 25 and 55 based on common mental disorders both across countries and between males and females.


Mental health expectancies were calculated by combining mortality data from population life tables and the age-specific prevalence of selected common mental disorders obtained from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD).


For the male population aged 25 (all countries combined) life expectancy was 52 years and life expectancy spent with a common mental disorder was 1.8 years (95% CI 0.7-2.9), 3.4% of overall life expectancy. In comparison, for the female population life expectancy at age 25 was higher (57.9 years) as was life expectancy spent with a common mental disorder (5.1 years, 95% CI 3.6-6.6) and as a proportion of overall life expectancy, 8.8%. By age 55 life expectancy spent with a common mental disorder had reduced to 0.7 years (males) and 2.3 years (females).


Age and gender differences underpin our understanding of years spent with common mental disorders in adulthood. Greater age does not mean living relatively more years with common mental disorder. However, the female population spends more years with common mental disorders and a greater proportion of their longer life expectancy with them (and with each studied separate mental disorder).

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