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Sci Rep. 2013;3:1401. doi: 10.1038/srep01401.

An aqueous rechargeable lithium battery using coated Li metal as anode.

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New Energy and Materials Laboratory (NEML), Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.


New energy industry including electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage in smart grids requires energy storage systems of good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost. Here a coated Li metal is used as anode for an aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB) combining LiMn2O4 as cathode and 0.5 mol l(-1) Li2SO4 aqueous solution as electrolyte. Due to the "cross-over" effect of Li(+) ions in the coating, this ARLB delivers an output voltage of about 4.0 V, a big breakthrough of the theoretic stable window of water, 1.229 V. Its cycling is very excellent with Coulomb efficiency of 100% except in the first cycle. Its energy density can be 446 Wh kg(-1), about 80% higher than that for traditional lithium ion battery. Its power efficiency can be above 95%. Furthermore, its cost is low and safety is much reliable. It provides another chemistry for post lithium ion batteries.

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