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Oral Dis. 2014 Mar;20(2):186-90. doi: 10.1111/odi.12088. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Moderate acute exercise (70% VO2 peak) induces TGF-β, α-amylase and IgA in saliva during recovery.

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Departamento de Biociências, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.


Strenuous exercise promotes changes in salivary IgA and can be associated with a high incidence of upper respiratory tract Infections. However, moderate exercise enhances immune function. The effect of exercise on salivary IgA has been well studied, but its effect on other immunological parameters is poorly studied. Thus, this study determined the effect of moderate acute exercise on immunological salivary parameters, such as the levels of cytokines (TGF-β and IL-5), IgA, α-amylase and total protein, over 24 h. Ten male adult subjects exercised for 60 min at an intensity of 70% VO2 peak. Saliva samples were collected before ('basal') and 0, 12 and 24 h after an exercise session. The total salivary protein was lower after 12 and 24 h than immediately after exercise, whereas α-amylase increased at 12 and 24 h after exercise compared with basal levels. The IgA concentration was increased at 24 h after exercise relative to immediately after exercise, and there was no difference in the IL-5 while TGF-β concentration increased in recovery. In conclusion, 70% VO2 peak exercise does not induce changes immediately after exercise, but after 24 h, it produces an increase in salivary TGF-β without changing IL-5.


IL-5; IgA; TGF-β; exercise; mucosal immune response; recovery; saliva; α-amylase

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