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J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2013 Mar;14(3):171-7. doi: 10.1631/jzus.B1200357.

Recent advances in the study of testicular nuclear receptor 4.

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1
Department of Urology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Abstract

Testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4), also known as NR2C2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group C, member 2), is a transcriptional factor and a member of the nuclear receptor family. TR4 was initially cloned from human and rat hypothalamus, prostate, and testes libraries. For almost two decades, its specific tissue distribution, genomic organization, and chromosomal assignment have been well investigated in humans and animals. However, it has been very difficult to study TR4's physiological functions due to a lack of specific ligands. Gene knock-out animal techniques provide an alternative approach for defining the biological functions of TR4. In vivo studies of TR4 gene knockout mice (TR4(-/-)) found that they display severe spinal curvature, subfertility, premature aging, and prostate prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) development. Upstream modulators, downstream target gene regulation, feedback mechanisms, and differential modulation mediated by the recruitment of other nuclear receptors and coregulators have been identified in studies using the TR4(-/-) phenotype. With the establishment of a tissue-specific TR4(-/-) mouse model, research on TR4 will be more convenient in the future.

PMID:
23463759
PMCID:
PMC3596567
DOI:
10.1631/jzus.B1200357
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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