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Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Jun;56(11):1573-8. doi: 10.1093/cid/cit113. Epub 2013 Mar 5.

Treatment of pediatric refractory coccidioidomycosis with combination voriconazole and caspofungin: a retrospective case series.

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Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0110, USA.



Coccidioidomycosis is a spectrum of diseases caused by the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides. Current regimens for severe or disseminated disease include fluconazole, itraconazole, or amphotericin; newer triazoles (ie, voriconazole, posaconazole) have been demonstrated to be useful in refractory disease. Previous reported experience with combination triazole and caspofungin therapy has been very limited; however, the utility of this combination for treatment of other invasive fungal diseases suggests potential benefit in refractory coccidioidomycosis.


We conducted a retrospective review of 9 pediatric patients treated with combination voriconazole and caspofungin (V/C) salvage therapy for refractory coccidioidomycosis at two children's hospitals between January 2000 and June 2012.


Nine children with refractory coccidioidomycosis were treated with V/C salvage therapy after failing conventional therapy consisting of a triazole, amphotericin B, or a combination of both. Eight of the 9 patients are currently in remission; 1 patient with central nervous system involvement continues to progress.


We report our positive clinical experience treating medically refractory coccidioidomycosis in the pediatric population with concurrent voriconazole and caspofungin therapy. Additional in vitro and in vivo evaluations are warranted to support the role of V/C salvage therapy for refractory coccidioidomycosis.


caspofungin; coccidioidomycosis; pediatrics; refractory; voriconazole

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