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Endocr Rev. 2013 Jun;34(3):309-38. doi: 10.1210/er.2012-1055. Epub 2013 Mar 4.

The role of estrogens in control of energy balance and glucose homeostasis.

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1
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA. f-mauvais-jarvis@northwestern.edu

Abstract

Estrogens play a fundamental role in the physiology of the reproductive, cardiovascular, skeletal, and central nervous systems. In this report, we review the literature in both rodents and humans on the role of estrogens and their receptors in the control of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism in health and metabolic diseases. Estrogen actions in hypothalamic nuclei differentially control food intake, energy expenditure, and white adipose tissue distribution. Estrogen actions in skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and immune cells are involved in insulin sensitivity as well as prevention of lipid accumulation and inflammation. Estrogen actions in pancreatic islet β-cells also regulate insulin secretion, nutrient homeostasis, and survival. Estrogen deficiency promotes metabolic dysfunction predisposing to obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. We also discuss the effect of selective estrogen receptor modulators on metabolic disorders.

PMID:
23460719
PMCID:
PMC3660717
DOI:
10.1210/er.2012-1055
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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