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J Thorac Oncol. 2013 Jun;8(6):726-35. doi: 10.1097/JTO.0b013e318288ab02.

Long-term outcome of proton therapy and carbon-ion therapy for large (T2a-T2bN0M0) non-small-cell lung cancer.

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Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.



: Although many reports have shown the safety and efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for T1N0M0 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is rather difficult to treat T2N0M0 NSCLC, especially T2b (>5 cm) tumor, with SBRT. Our hypothesis was that particle therapy might be superior to SBRT in T2 patients. We evaluated the clinical outcome of particle therapy for T2a/bN0M0 NSCLC staged according to the 7th edition of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) tumor, node, metastasis classification.


: From April 2003 to December 2009, 70 histologically confirmed patients were treated with proton (n = 43) or carbon-ion (n = 27) therapy according to institutional protocols. Forty-seven patients had a T2a tumor and 23 had a T2b tumor. The total dose and fraction (fr) number were 60 (Gray equivalent) GyE/10 fr in 20 patients, 52.8 GyE/4 fr in 16, 66 GyE/10 fr in 16, 80 GyE/20 fr in 14, and other in four patients, respectively. Toxicities were scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, Version 4.0.


: The median follow-up period for living patients was 51 months (range, 24-103). For all 70 patients, the 4-year overall survival, local control, and progression-free survival rates were 58% (T2a, 53%; T2b, 67%), 75% (T2a, 70%; T2b, 84%), and 46% (T2a, 43%; T2b, 52%), respectively, with no significant differences between the two groups. The 4-year regional recurrence rate was 17%. Grade 3 pulmonary toxicity was observed in only two patients.


: Particle therapy is well tolerated and effective for T2a/bN0M0 NSCLC. To further improve treatment outcome, adjuvant chemotherapy seems a reasonable option, whenever possible.

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