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Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2013 Mar;11(3):321-31. doi: 10.1586/eri.13.4.

Impact of antimicrobial multidrug resistance on inpatient care cost: an evaluation of the evidence.

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Alfa Institute of Biomedical Sciences, 9 Neapoleos Street, 151 23 Marousi, Athens, Greece.


This article evaluates the in-hospital costs attributable to antimicrobial multidrug resistance, defined as the difference in averaged costs of the patients infected with a multidrug-resistant (MDR) versus a non-MDR organism. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Twenty four studies were included: four on carbapenem-resistant or MDR Gram negative nonfermenters, eight on extended-spectrum b-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and 12 on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In two studies on carbapenem-resistant nonfermenters, the attributable mean hospital charges were US$58,457 and 85,299, respectively. The attributable mean total costs were US$4484 in a study referring to MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, while that varied from US$1584 to 30,093 among studies on extended-spectrum b-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. With respect to methicillin-resistant S. aureus, the attributable mean total costs varied from US$1014 to 40,090. The in-hospital costs attributable to multidrug resistance are alarmingly high, justifying the application of strict infection control measures in medical institutions with increased rate of MDR infections.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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