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J Magn Reson. 2013 Apr;229:187-97. doi: 10.1016/j.jmr.2013.02.003. Epub 2013 Feb 8.

Strategies for rapid in vivo 1H and hyperpolarized 13C MR spectroscopic imaging.

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Surbeck Laboratory for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158-2330, USA.


In vivo MRSI is an important imaging modality that has been shown in numerous research studies to give biologically relevant information for assessing the underlying mechanisms of disease and for monitoring response to therapy. The increasing availability of high field scanners and multichannel radiofrequency coils has provided the opportunity to acquire in vivo data with significant improvements in sensitivity and signal to noise ratio. These capabilities may be used to shorten acquisition time and provide increased coverage. The ability to acquire rapid, volumetric MRSI data is critical for examining heterogeneity in metabolic profiles and for relating serial changes in metabolism within the same individual during the course of the disease. In this review we discuss the implementation of strategies that use alternative k-space sampling trajectories and parallel imaging methods in order to speed up data acquisition. The impact of such methods is demonstrated using three recent examples of how these methods have been applied. These are to the acquisition of robust 3D (1)H MRSI data within 5-10 min at a field strength of 3 T, to obtaining higher sensitivity for (1)H MRSI at 7 T and to using ultrafast volumetric and dynamic (13)C MRSI for monitoring the changes in signals that occur following the injection of hyperpolarized (13)C agents.

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