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Stud Mycol. 2013 Mar 15;74(1):1-29. doi: 10.3114/sim0006. Epub 2012 Sep 14.

Development in Aspergillus.

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Microbiology and Kluyver Centre for Genomics of Industrial Fermentations, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.


The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus.


Aspergillus; ascocarp; ascospore; asexual reproduction; conidiophore; conidium; development; fruiting body; fungi; heterogeneity; sexual reproduction; vegetative mycelium

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