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Cereb Cortex. 2014 Jul;24(7):1937-47. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht051. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

Functional networks in parallel with cortical development associate with executive functions in children.

Author information

1
Department of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
2
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, the Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore.
3
Clinical Imaging Research Center, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Singapore.
4
Douglas Mental Health University Institute, McGill University, Montréal, Canada, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, the Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore.
5
Department of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Clinical Imaging Research Center, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, the Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore bieqa@nus.edu.sg.

Abstract

Children begin performing similarly to adults on tasks requiring executive functions in late childhood, a transition that is probably due to neuroanatomical fine-tuning processes, including myelination and synaptic pruning. In parallel to such structural changes in neuroanatomical organization, development of functional organization may also be associated with cognitive behaviors in children. We examined 6- to 10-year-old children's cortical thickness, functional organization, and cognitive performance. We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify areas with cortical thinning, resting-state fMRI to identify functional organization in parallel to cortical development, and working memory/response inhibition tasks to assess executive functioning. We found that neuroanatomical changes in the form of cortical thinning spread over bilateral frontal, parietal, and occipital regions. These regions were engaged in 3 functional networks: sensorimotor and auditory, executive control, and default mode network. Furthermore, we found that working memory and response inhibition only associated with regional functional connectivity, but not topological organization (i.e., local and global efficiency of information transfer) of these functional networks. Interestingly, functional connections associated with "bottom-up" as opposed to "top-down" processing were more clearly related to children's performance on working memory and response inhibition, implying an important role for brain systems involved in late childhood.

KEYWORDS:

cortical thickness; executive functioning; late childhood; resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging

PMID:
23448875
DOI:
10.1093/cercor/bht051
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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