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Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2013;303:237-62. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-407697-6.00006-4.

New insights into the mechanism for chromosome alignment in metaphase.

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1
Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, NY, USA.

Abstract

During mitosis, duplicated sister chromatids are properly aligned at the metaphase plate of the mitotic spindle before being segregated into two daughter cells. This requires a complex process to ensure proper interactions between chromosomes and spindle microtubules. The kinetochore, the proteinaceous complex assembled at the centromere region on each chromosome, serves as the microtubule attachment site and powers chromosome movement in mitosis. Numerous proteins/protein complexes have been implicated in the connection between kinetochores and dynamic microtubules. Recent studies have advanced our understanding on the nature of the interface between kinetochores and microtubule plus ends in promoting and maintaining their stable attachment. These efforts have demonstrated the importance of this process to ensure accurate chromosome segregation, an issue which has great significance for understanding and controlling abnormal chromosome segregation (aneuploidy) in human genetic diseases and in cancer progression.

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