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Indian J Cancer. 2012 Oct-Dec;49(4):387-92. doi: 10.4103/0019-509X.107745.

Predictors of tobacco smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults in Bangladesh.

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  • 1Global Tobacco Control Branch, Office on Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.



To examine predictors of current tobacco smoking and smokeless tobacco use among the adult population in Bangladesh.


We used data from the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in Bangladesh consisting of 9,629 adults aged ≥15 years. Differences in and predictors of prevalence for both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were analyzed using selected socioeconomic and demographic characteristics that included gender, age, place of residence, education, occupation, and an index of wealth.


The prevalence of smoking is high among males (44.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 42.5-47.0) as compared to females (1.5%, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1), whereas the prevalence of smokeless tobacco is almost similar among both males (26.4%, 95% CI: 24.2-28.6) and females (27.9%, 95% CI: 25.9-30.0). Correlates of current smoking are male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 41.46, CI = 23.8-73.4), and adults in older age (ORs range from 1.99 in 24-35 years age to 5.49 in 55-64 years age), less education (ORs range from 1.47 in less than secondary to 3.25 in no formal education), and lower socioeconomic status (ORs range from 1.56 in high wealth index to 2.48 in lowest wealth index. Predictors of smokeless tobacco use are older age (ORs range from 2.54in 24-35 years age to 12.31 in 55-64 years age), less education (ORs range from 1.44 in less than secondary to 2.70 in no formal education), and the low (OR = 1.34, CI = 1.0-1.7) or lowest (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.1-1.9) socioeconomic status.


Implementation of tobacco control strategies needs to bring special attention on disadvantaged group and cover all types of tobacco product as outlined in the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and WHO MPOWER to protect people's health and prevent premature death.

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