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Environ Toxicol Chem. 2013 Jul;32(7):1649-54. doi: 10.1002/etc.2202. Epub 2013 May 28.

Accumulation and effects of 90-day oral exposure to Dechlorane Plus in quail (Coturnix coturnix).

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Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.


While a number of studies have addressed bioaccumulation of the flame retardant Dechlorane Plus (DP), little information is available regarding the adverse effects of DP on animals, especially on bird species. In the present study, male common quails (Coturnix coturnix) were consecutively exposed to commercial DP-25 by gavage for 90 d at 1-mg/kg/d, 10-mg/kg/d, and 100-mg/kg/d dosages. Concentrations of DP isomers in liver, muscle, and serum were determined after exposure. Liver enzyme activity involved in xenobiotic biotransformation processes and oxidative stress was measured, as well as glutathione and maleic dialdehyde content. The results showed that DP was more prone to accumulate in the liver than in muscle and serum in all exposed groups. In tested tissues, syn-DP dominated in the high-exposure groups (10 and 100 mg/kg/d), whereas anti-DP tended to accumulate in the low-exposure group (1 mg/kg/d). The concentration ratios of anti-DP to total DP (fanti values) in the tissues examined were close to commercial DP in the low-exposure group; however, the fanti values were significantly decreased in the high-exposure groups. Enzyme activity of 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-demethylase (PROD) decreased significantly in all exposed groups compared with the control group, whereas activity of erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) and the antioxidant enzyme catalase significantly increased in high-exposure groups. The results implied that DP exposure levels influenced isomeric compositions in organs and that DP exposure altered hepatic alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (AROD) activity and contributed to the biological effects of DP.

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