Send to

Choose Destination
Brain Res. 2013 Apr 24;1507:97-104. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2013.02.023. Epub 2013 Feb 21.

Activated protein C analog promotes neurogenesis and improves neurological outcome after focal ischemic stroke in mice via protease activated receptor 1.

Author information

Center for Neurodegeneration and Regeneration, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA.


3K3A-APC is a recombinant analog of activated protein C (APC) which is an endogenous protease with multiple functions in the body. Compared to APC, 3K3A-APC has reduced anticoagulant activity but preserved cell signaling activities. In the brain, 3K3A-APC exerts neuroprotective effects after an acute or chronic injury. 3K3A-APC is currently under clinical assessment as a neuroprotective agent following acute ischemic stroke. Whether 3K3A-APC can influence post-ischemic neurogenesis and improve neurological outcome by promoting brain repair remains unknown. Here we show that murine 3K3A-APC 0.8mg/kg intraperitoneally given at 12h, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) in mice compared to vehicle improves significantly sensorimotor and locomotor activity 7 and 14 days after stroke, reduces infarct and edema volumes 7 days after stroke by 43% (P<0.05) and 50% (P<0.05), respectively, increases the number of newly formed neuroblasts in the subventricular zone, corpus callosum and the peri-infarct area 7 days after stroke by 2.2-fold, 2.3-fold and 2.2-fold (P<0.05), respectively, and increases the cortical width index 14 days after stroke by 28% (P<0.05). Functional outcome in 3K3A-APC-treated group, but not in vehicle-treated group, correlated inversely with the reductions in the infarct volume, and positively with the number of neuroblasts migrating in the peri-infarct area and the cortical width index. The effects of 3K3A-APC on neuroprotection, neurogenesis and brain repair were lost in protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) deficient mice. Thus, late therapy with 3K3A-APC is neuroprotective and promotes stroke-induced neurogenesis and repair through PAR1 in mice.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center