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J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Mar;113(3):431-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2012.11.015.

Self-reported dietary intake of youth with recent onset of type 2 diabetes: results from the TODAY study.

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George Washington University Biostatistics Center, 6110 Executive Blvd, Ste 750, Rockville,MD 20852, USA.


Despite the widely recognized importance of diet in managing diabetes, few studies have documented usual dietary intake in young people with type 2 diabetes. The objectives of our study were to assess dietary intake among a large, ethnically diverse cohort of young people with type 2 diabetes and compare intake to current recommendations. The Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study is a multicenter randomized clinical trial of 699 youth aged 10 to 17 years. At baseline, following a run-in period that included standard diabetes education, diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire between 2004 and 2009. Analysis of variance and nonparametric tests were used to compare mean and median nutrient intakes; logistic regression was used to compare the odds of meeting predefined dietary intake recommendation cutpoints between subgroups of age, sex, and race-ethnicity. Percent of energy from saturated fat was consistently 13% to 14% across all subgroups-substantially exceeding national recommendations. Overall, only 12% of youth met Healthy People 2010 guidelines for intake of <10% of energy from saturated fat and only 1% of youth met American Diabetes Association recommendations for intake of <7% of energy from saturated fat. Dietary intake fell substantially below other Healthy People 2010 targets; only 3% met calcium intake goals, 11% met fruit consumption goals, 5% met vegetable consumption goals, and 67% met grain intake goals. Overall, dietary intake in this large cohort of young people with type 2 diabetes fell substantially short of recommendations, in ways that were consistent by sex, age, and race-ethnicity. The data suggest a critical need for better approaches to improve dietary intake of these young people.

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