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N Z Vet J. 2013 Jul;61(4):193-201. doi: 10.1080/00480169.2013.768151. Epub 2013 Feb 26.

Canine herpesvirus-1 ocular diseases of mature dogs.

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Department of Clinical Services, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.


Canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) is an alphaherpesvirus with a host range restricted to canids. Latent CHV-1 infection is endemic in domestic dog populations worldwide. The role of CHV-1 in severe systemic neonatal infections and as an aetiology of infectious infertility and abortion has been appreciated for decades; however, ocular diseases of mature dogs conclusively associated with CHV-1 infection were only recently described. Clinically, CHV-1 infection may produce a diverse range of adnexal and ocular surface lesions in mature dogs, including blepharitis, conjunctivitis, ulcerative keratitis, and nonulcerative keratitis. These conditions can develop during primary or recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection. Recurrent CHV-1 infections associated with reactivation of latent virus may be observed during a variety of situations and in association with numerous different viral reactivation stimuli, including the administration of immunosuppressive pharmaceuticals. The understanding of CHV-1 pathophysiology and ocular infections in mature dogs has expanded rapidly during the past few years, but much remains to be elucidated. As the number of dogs living with chronic immunomodulatory systemic diseases and receiving immunosuppressive therapeutics continues to grow, the clinical importance of CHV-1 ocular infections is also likely to increase.

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