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Appl Opt. 2013 Feb 20;52(6):1226-9. doi: 10.1364/AO.52.001226.

Mode-locked thulium-bismuth codoped fiber laser using graphene saturable absorber in ring cavity.

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Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, National Defense University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


We demonstrate mode locking of a thulium-bismuth codoped fiber laser (TBFL) operating at 1901.6 nm, using a graphene-based saturable absorber (SA). In this work, a single layer graphene is mechanically exfoliated using the scotch tape method and directly transferred onto the surface of a fiber pigtail to fabricate the SA. The obtained Raman spectrum characteristic indicates that the graphene on the core surface has a single layer. At 1552 nm pump power of 869 mW, the mode-locked TBFL self starts to generate an optical pulse train with a repetition rate of 16.7 MHz and pulse width of 0.37 ps. This is a simple, low-cost, stable, and convenient laser oscillator for applications where eye-safe and low-photon-energy light sources are required, such as sensing and biomedical diagnostics.

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