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Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2013 May;41(5):414-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2013.01.006. Epub 2013 Feb 20.

Emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactam resistance among Escherichia coli at a US academic children's hospital is clonal at the sequence type level for CTX-M-15, but not for CMY-2.

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Center for Childhood Infections and Prematurity Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98101, USA.


Resistance to extended-spectrum β-lactams is increasing worldwide among Escherichia coli and has been linked to a small number of emergent clones (e.g. ST38, ST131 and ST405) recovered from extraintestinal infections in community and hospital settings. There are, however, limited data about the relative contributions of bacterial strains, plasmids and β-lactamase genes to extended-spectrum β-lactam resistance in paediatric infections. We performed an extensive molecular analysis of phylogenetic, virulence and antibiotic resistance-related properties of 49 previously reported serial E. coli isolates recovered during 1999-2007 at Seattle Children's Hospital (Seattle, WA). Class C enzyme CMY-2 and class A enzyme CTX-M-15 were the most prominent extended-spectrum β-lactam resistance enzymes in the collection, first appearing in this patient population in 2001 and 2003, respectively, and then steadily increasing in frequency over the remainder of the study period. Among 19 CMY-2-positive isolates, 16 distinct STs were detected (D = 98.25%, 95% CI 96-100.25%), indicating that CMY spread is non-clonal at the host strain level. In contrast, among ten CTX-M-15-positive isolates, three STs were detected (D = 37.78%, 95% CI 2.36-73.20%), of which eight represented the worldwide-disseminated ST131 lineage, consistent with clonal spread of CTX-M-15-associated resistance. fimHTR subtyping of ten ST131 isolates (including two CTX-M-negative isolates) revealed that, within ST131, carriage of allele fimHTR30 correlated with CTX-M-15 positivity, whilst carriage of non-fimHTR30 alleles correlated with carriage of non-CTX-M enzymes. Thus, spread of CMY-2 is non-clonal at the ST level, but clonal spread of CTX-M-15 may be associated with a specific fimHTR-defined sublineage of ST131.

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