Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
S Afr Med J. 1990 May 19;77(10):522-4.

The relationship between the hardness of treated water and cardiovascular disease mortality in South African urban areas.

Author information

  • 1Department of Community Health, School of Life Sciences, Cape Technikon.


A number of studies carried out in other countries have shown the existence of negative correlations between cardiovascular disease mortality and the hardness of water supplies. A study here showed negative correlation (P less than 0.10) between cardiovascular disease mortality for the South African urban white population and total water hardness (equivalent calcium carbonate mg/l). Negative correlations were also found to exist with the hardness-associated factors potassium (P less than 0.05), sulphate (P less than 0.05) and chloride (P less than 0.05) and manganese (P less than 0.10). The results are described in terms of existing studies and a number of local problems have been identified and discussed.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Support Center