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J Mol Med (Berl). 2013 Mar;91(3):323-8. doi: 10.1007/s00109-013-1007-3. Epub 2013 Feb 22.

Inflammation and oxidative stress in angiogenesis and vascular disease.

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Department of Molecular Cardiology, Joseph J. Jacobs Center for Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, OH 44195, USA.


Recent evidence suggests that processes of inflammation and angiogenesis are interconnected, especially in human pathologies. Newly formed blood vessels enable the continuous recruitment of inflammatory cells, which release a variety of proangiogenic cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors and further promote angiogenesis. These series of positive feedback loops ultimately create a vicious cycle that exacerbates inflammation, transforming it into the chronic process. Recently, this concept of reciprocity of angiogenesis and inflammation has been expanded to include oxidative stress as a novel mechanistic connection between inflammation-driven oxidation and neovascularization. Production of reactive oxygen species results from activation of immune cells by proinflammatory stimuli. As oxidative stress can lead to chronic inflammation by activating a variety of transcription factors including NF-κB, AP-1, and PPAR-γ, inflammation itself has a reciprocal relationship with oxidative stress. This review discusses the recent findings in the area bridging neovascularization and oxidation and highlights novel mechanisms of inflammation- and oxidative stress-driven angiogenesis.

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