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Microbiology. 2013 Apr;159(Pt 4):757-70. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.064691-0. Epub 2013 Feb 21.

An updated metabolic view of the Bacillus subtilis 168 genome.

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CEA, Institut de Génomique, Génoscope Laboratoire d'Analyse Bioinformatique en Génomique et Métabolisme, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, Evry, France.


Continuous updating of the genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis, the model of the Firmicutes, is a basic requirement needed by the biology community. In this work new genomic objects have been included (toxin/antitoxin genes and small RNA genes) and the metabolic network has been entirely updated. The curated view of the validated metabolic pathways present in the organism as of 2012 shows several significant differences from pathways present in the other bacterial reference, Escherichia coli: variants in synthesis of cofactors (thiamine, biotin, bacillithiol), amino acids (lysine, methionine), branched-chain fatty acids, tRNA modification and RNA degradation. In this new version, gene products that are enzymes or transporters are explicitly linked to the biochemical reactions of the RHEA reaction resource (, while novel compound entries have been created in the database Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ( The newly annotated sequence is deposited at the International Nucleotide Sequence Data Collaboration with accession number AL009126.4.

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